The Best Kitchen Torches and Complete Reviews with Comparison

From torching the finishing touches of a crème brulee, carmelising fruit, roasting vegetables, or completing any number of common cooking tasks, a high-quality kitchen torch is an essential piece of equipment for any home chef.

However, the question as to what kitchen-torch is the best is a difficult one to answer. The variety of brands and styles for available kitchen torches is nearly as long as the items that the torch can be used to cook.

Product Reviews

1 . Tintec Culinary Torch


  • Professionally Designed for Cooking
  • Safe Design
  • Easy to Use
  • Portable
  • Versatile
  • Removable Metal Base

Product Highlights

The Tintec Culinary torch is a high-quality, aluminium alloy piece of kitchen and cooking equipment. Tintec products are manufactured with thorough quality inspections. Tintec products also come with a 12-month warranty and lifetime technical support.Check out Kitchen Aims At KitchenAims, we help you choose the right kitchen products whether you are a beginner or an expert.

The Good

The Tintec Culinary torch-product is the top selling single torch-item on The torch-product provides customers with excellent value for cost, which is one of the reasons why it is the top ranked product.

Amazon customer reviews reveal that this piece of equipment is easy-to-use as described in the product summary. Additionally, consumers praised Tintec’s customer service team for quickly reusolving issues that arose from their torch-products.

The Tintec product is a simple, affordable, and reliable tool that can be used in a variety of settings.

The Bad

While the Tintec Culinary butane-torch is affordable and provides nice value for customers. It’s disappointing that the equipment doesn’t come with fuel at the purchase so it must be bought separately. If a consumer buys the product online and is unaware that they must also buy fuel, they feel misled by the low price.

The primary application of the kitchen-torch is obviously for cooking. However, several customers state that the Tintec’s flame and heat source isn’t very strong. It’s effective when cooking small meals but isn’t capable of heating larger cooking projects.

  • Customers are satisfied with the product.
  • Product is affordable and provides value for cost to consumers.
  • Has a simple design and easy-to-use functionality.
  • Tintec customer service provide customers with excellent support.
  • roduct does not come with butane fuel at purchase, must be bought separately.
  • Some customers reported that the kitchen equipment didn’t produce enough power for larger cooking projects.
  • Process of refilling product with butane can be confusing or difficult.

2. Tencoz Torch


  • Unparalleled Safety
  • Versatility
  • Packs a Variety of Features
  • Immediate, Consistent Lighting
  • Can be Effectively Used in Various Settings Outside of the Kitchen

Product Highlights

The Tencoz torch-product is described as a professional-grade kitchen-torch. It is suitable to be used by the Chef of a restaurant or a parent cooking dinner for their family.

The Tencoz item runs on butane fuel, which is not included with the product at purchase. The merchandise description states that the Tencoz is easily refillable with an easy-to-adjust flame. The design features a finger safety guard that is meant to keep customers safe from the heat while increasing the comfort of the user.

Product description lists a variety of functions that the Tencoz equipment can be used for. Tencoz considers it’s blow torch to be an excellent idea for a gift. Shipments of the items arrive in a deluxe gift box set.

The Good

The Tencoz torch-product is the second most popular kitchen torch-product on Amazon. It even has a higher average rating than the top ranked kitchen torch, which we discussed before this. This tells us that more customers have bought the Tintec product, but customers give a higher average rating to the Tencoz merchandise.

This piece of kitchen equipment is versatile and can be used in numerous settings. Customers may even purchase the product without the intention of using it for cooking. Consumers use these items for lighting cigars, pouring bar cocktails, camping functions and art work.

Finally, the kitchen-torch comes at an extremely affordable price. The top selling unit on Amazon costs $13.47 while the Tencoz unit is $12.99. Value for cost will always be in a customer’s most desired traits of a purchase.

Also Check miglior telecomando universale

The Bad

The Tencoz product doesn’t come with a significant number of negative factors. It seems to be one of the best value items within the kitchen and cooking equipment consumer industry. You could certainly buy a more expensive kitchen-torch, and possibly receive a superior product. However, you’re risking a larger loss.

Tencoz claims that its torch-item supports unparalleled safety and consistency. However, customer reviews show that the item will occasionally break down within weeks of using it. Consumers also reported butane leaks occurring shortly after purchase.

All things considered, the Tencoz kitchen-torch provides fantastic value for money and is an excellent option for customers seeking an inexpensive purchase.

  • Amazon customer reviews demonstrate that most consumers are satisfied with the Tencoz product.
  • Item description and customer reviews continually praise the torch’s usefulness when cooking small meals.
  • Torch-design is simple and it’s easy to use.
  • Consumer reviews indicate that the product may not be as durable as advertised.
  • Customers state that after owning the item for a short duration, it was leaking butane.
  • Claim of ‘unparalleled safety’ may be mis-representative.

3. GiBot Culinary Torch


  • Multi-Purpose and Refillable
  • Multi-Functional and Safe
  • Piezo Ignition Technology
  • Adjustable Flame
  • High-Quality Product Guarantee

Product Highlights

The GiBot Culinary kitchen-torch is a brand-new addition to the Amazon market. It is currently rated as the top-selling new release item and third highest among all kitchen-torches. Furthermore, the GiBot Culinary comes in at the low cost of $11.90.

GiBot’s torch-product reaches temperatures as high as 2372 degrees Fahrenheit. The product’s flame can grow to lengths of five to six inches long. The item is portable, lightweight, and comfortable to carry. GiBot Culinary’s product has a safety lock, which is great for customers that have young children.

The kitchen-torch can be used for a variety purposes beyond the kitchen. It is a versatile item, even able to assist Do-It-Yourself soldering and welding. GiBot guarantees high-quality, reliable, and safe products. GiBot Culinary was only recently released and is already the third highest selling blow torch on Amazon. If the product’s success continues, GiBot has a strong chance of claiming the title of top selling blow torch on Amazon.

The Good

GiBot Culinary is described as a portable, convenient, and versatile piece of equipment. The newly released item is able to work in a variety of situations and locations. The GiBot butane-torch can be used for anything from roasting the end of a Crème Brulee to DIY projects art, jewelry, or home projects.

GiBot’s product description on Amazon lists specific, detailed instructions for using the device and how to do it safely. It’s great to see that GiBot is making safety a priority. There are so many companies that don’t care about their customer’s safety. GiBot is making a strong effort to protect their own.

Furthermore, GiBot guarantees the reliability of their products with a lifetime guarantee. The GiBot Culinary is also a very cost-effective option for customers. GiBot’s product has a listed price of $11.90. This price presents consumers with a great opportunity to save some funds.

The Bad

The GiBot Culinary torch is still a recently released products. Initial reviews and sales have been very positive. However, sometimes a new item won’t produce problems until some time has passed the release date. Every new product, regardless of the industry experiences issues. It will be interesting to see if GiBot Culinary can effectively respond to any issues or malfunctions.

A review of customer feedback shows that numerous consumers are dealing with longer than usual shipping dates. This type of feedback may not be GiBot’s responsibility because Amazon also plays a large role in the shipment of goods.

Finally, the GiBot kitchen-torch doesn’t include butane gas in the purchase. Consumers should be made aware that they must obtain butane separately. Butane gas included with the purchase of a new butane-torch is not common, so it’s not a big surprise. However, negative customer reviews related to the absence of Butane are amongst the common.

  • The new GiBot merchandise is a versatile piece of equipment, is useful in a variety of situation
  • GiBot guarantees the reliability of their product with a lifetime guarantee.
  • The kitchen equipment comes at the appealing price of just $11.90
  • GiBot Culinary is still a newly released product. Sometimes it takes time for an item’s issues or problems to arise.
  • Customer reviews indicate that consumers are dealing with long wait times for shipping.
  • The product doesn’t come with butane fuel, it must be purchased separately.

4. Sondiko Culinary Torch


  • Adjustable Flame Control
  • Durable Design
  • Safety Lock
  • Versatility
  • Low of price of $10.99

Product Highlights

The Sondiko Kitchen-torch is a high-quality cooking torch with plenty of additional applications. Sondiko describes its torch as the perfect tool for melting sugar to finish off a Crème Brulee, preparing a baked ham, and roasting bread crumbs. The item can be used to light candles or cigars, make jewellery, complete arts and crafts, and camping.

The strength of the product’s flame can be adjusted with an easy-to-use button. Sondiko Culinary designed the product and materials to create a durable frame. The safety lock adds an element of safety to the torch and will provide comfort to customers who have children. Further related to safety, the product has a burn-free finger guard and angled nozzle. These features keep the user’s hand protected from the flame.

Although Sondiko doesn’t include butane with the purchase of their torch-products, the item is easy to operate and refill. Additionally, the torch-product includes an adjustable flame and a setting that allows for a continuous flame. Furthermore, this item is versatile and has applications beyond the kitchen.

The Good

After closely reviewing the description of the Sondiko kitchen-torch, consumers can confidently consider the item a top-of-the-line product. According to Amazon customers who have purchased the torch, it has one of the strongest and hottest flames out of any torches that we’ve reviewed. Customers rave about the kitchen-torch’s proficiency at toasting and roasting food.

Sondiko describes the ability of their torch-products to usefully assist in the preparation of food. Their product is praised for being versatile and simple. The torch-product is effective in multiple settings, which include: Roasting all types of food, creating jewellery, preparing arts and crafts, or numerous camping applications.

Additionally, the Sondiko kitchen-torch is safe to be around children, durable, easily refillable, and simple to use. The design of the product has two key safety features, which are the angled nozzle and burn-free finger protector.

The Sondiko kitchen torch is a dynamic and well-rounded product. Many Amazon customer reviews of this torch are positive. Finally, the price of the torch is a mere $10.99. This makes Sondiko’s torch one of the best values in the industry. Customers can feel comfortable and safe when purchasing this kitchen torch.

The Bad

Sondiko’s kitchen torch seems to like a very good overall product after close review. The product doesn’t have any missing desirable features. Additionally, the product’s Amazon customer reviews are overwhelmingly positive. However, this being a review article, something to critique can always be found.

Consumer comments on the torch’s Amazon page display comments related to the torch using butane gas rapidly. These comments could be the result of a malfunctioning unit or it could be due to the product’s strong flame and high heat.

  • High-quality versatility and functionality
  • One of the most powerful flames and high temperatures of any kitchen torch on the Amazon market
  • The low cost of $10.99 provides customers with an apparent bargain.
  • May burn through butane gas quickly due to the powerful flame and consistently high temperatures.

5. Butane Refillable Torch Lighter


  • Butane is one of the most trusted names in the lighter and torch industryHigh-efficiency model
  • Fully child proof and guaranteed for safety
  • Extended time with flame at full strength

Product Highlights

The Zen Spirit Butane Torch is an efficient, lightweight torch. According to Butane’s own Amazon page, there is no other torch or lighter on the market that can compare. Described as a dynamic, multifaceted blow torch that can showcase its effectiveness in numerous situations and environments.

Butane’s kitchen-torch is an exceptionally high-quality product that is ergonomically sound, efficient, and incredibly safe to use. The item features a complex flame adjustment that feature. The user has significant control over the flame’s strength, heat, and continuity. Reliability is of the utmost importance to Butane and the Zen Station kitchen-torch lights up reliably every time.

Butane’s torch-item is incredibly effective in the kitchen. Butane promises that this product will demonstrate usefulness in any situation in which a lighter or butane-torch is necessary. This high-quality piece of equipment is versatile. The Butane product is just as effective when roasting marshmallows as it is when it is being used for a DIY home project.

The Good

After an in-depth review of the product and it’s Amazon page, the Zen Spirit Butane Torchmay very well be the best kitchen torch in the industry. It’s difficult to find a single flaw or negative review related to the torch among any of the descriptions or reviews.

Amazon consumers praised the Butane kitchen for a variety of features. Let’s examine the most common characteristics that consumers appreciated about the torch

  • Torch-products are easy to use with a simple design
  • Lightweight, durable, and ergonomically-sound features
  • Great value for cost
  • Among the safest torches in the industry
  • Reliable and consistent flame that never lets you down

Customers commented positively about numerous aspects related to the Butane torch beyond those listed above.

Butane’s own product descriptions combined with user’s overwhelmingly positive feedback demonstrates the trust and expertise that the torch manufacturer has in the industry.

The Bad

After scrolling through numerous Amazon customer reviews, it appears there is only one negative review related to the Zen Spirit butane-torch. One customer reported that the product arrived and was immediately defective. The individual continued to state that they attempted to fill the torch with fluid, but it was extremely difficult. This customer seems to have had a uniquely poor experience with an otherwise exceptional product.

Additionally, since the kitchen-torch arrived at the customer’s residence in a defective state, it could’ve very well been the shipping company who are responsible for the product being broken. The vast percentage of Amazon reviews were customers beaming with positive things to say about the item.

The Zen Spirit Butane Torch is an outstanding product that represents a symbol of excellence in the industry. At this point in the review, Zen Spirit holds the title for the best kitchen torch. It’s going to be incredibly difficult to top Butane’s product, but keep reading to find out if another torch-product can outdo Butane.

  • Inexpensive price of $12.99 makes the Butane Torch one of the best value kitchen torches in the industry.
  • Easy to use and simple design
  • Exceptional standards of safety
  • Incredibly versatile while remaining effective
  • None

6. Ideapro Butane Torch


  • Excellent Safety and Durability Features
  • Designers Emphasized Versatility
  • Easy to Use and Portable
  • Flexible Flame Adjustment

Product Highlights

The Ideapro butane-torch is a visually appealing, efficient, high-quality kitchen torch. Ideapro claims that their product claims huge amounts of praise while being inexpensive. The company believes in the quality of their products and follow that up with a zero-hassle return policy. A simple and fair return policy will always win points for a brand in the eyes of the consumer.

Ideapro boasts a fantastic customer service experience. The Ideapro torch-item employs Anti-Flare technology and safety locks to ensure that customers can use the torch and remain safe. This brand is making a concerted effort to appeal directly to consumers through the use of outstanding service and great customer service.

The torch-product is an effective tool, well-designed, and features all the characteristics that a potential torch consumer could ask for. This merchandise has been on the Amazon market for quite some time now as the product has hundreds of reviews.

The Good

The Ideapro kitchen-torch appears to be a perfectly effective, useful, and simple torch-product. There are numerous factors on this item that help make it an appealing piece of merchandise.

The security feature of the kitchen-torch prevents any chance for mistaken ignition. The kitchen-torch was designed to have a wide set base to prevent the torch from tipping over, which is an underrated but very desirable feature.

Ideapro’s product features versatility, simplicity, and it is highly portable. This kitchen torch can be useful in any situation in which a torch would be needed. The product can assist users in preparing multiple camping applications as well as roasting bell peppers. If that doesn’t demonstrate versatility, I’m not sure what does.

Ideapro maintains a satisfaction guarantee within the company. They operate with a no-hassle return policy within thirty days of purchase and one-hundred percent money back.

The Bad

Ideapro’s kitchen-torch is a perfectly adequate tool. The product possesses a variety of useful functions, safety features, and creative ways to use your new torch. Additionally, the company earns the product bonus points by being so consumer-oriented. 

It shows in their advertisements that they genuinely care about their customer experience and work hard to ensure that those people are satisfied. There aren’t many negative things to say about this product, but we do have one or two review trends to discuss.

While reviewing the customer reviews of the Ideapro kitchen-torch, the first negative theme identified was that several customers received defective products when they arrived. Again, this could very well not be the fault of Ideapro because shipping companies can often damage goods while they are in transit.

Finally, it appears that Ideapro may have priced themselves out of their market, other than loyal customers. The price of their kitchen-torch is sitting at $12.97. There are numerous high-quality torches at that price point. A few of the similarly priced products are clearly superior to Ideapro’s item. The company’s challenges related to competition may be the reason why they decided to focus their effort on customer care.

  • Outstanding customer service
  • Security features effectively prevent accidents
  • Versatile functions and simple design
  • Sleek, visually appealing appearance
  • $12.97 price point is certainly affordable and fair for the quality of the product. However, numerous other torch-products at this price are superior to Ideapro’s product.
  • Several customers wrote negative reviews in response to receiving a faulty or defective product.

7. Spicy Dew Torch


  • Professional-Grade, High-Quality Cooking Torch
  • Multifunctional for Use Inside or Outside
  • Outstanding Standards of Safety
  • Extremely Simple and Easy to Use
  • 100% No-Hassle Warranty

Product Highlights

The Spicy Dew Torch is the last in this review and the most expensive. The price of Spicy Dew’s product is roughly double the price of all the others we’ve reviewed today. This butane-torch has an excellent design that is highly visually appealing. Customers who are interested in tools or kitchen objects that are aesthetically pleasing should look no further than the Spicy Dew kitchen-torch.

Spicy Dew’s own product advertisement claims that the product can bring a professional culinary chef’s experience into your kitchen. It’s unlikely that buying a kitchen torch is going to turn anyone into a professional chef. However, it can certainly add a unique and useful cooking method for people who know how to use a torch safely.

Safety quality of the highest degree is one of the defining features of this kitchen-torch. The torch-product features anti-flare protection, an extremely durable design, and it is reportedly exceedingly simple to learn and use.

The Good

The Spicy Dew product is a fantastic piece of equipment and has numerous traits that consumers want to have in their torches. This torch is clearly aimed more at individuals who want to use the torch for cooking.

Spicy Dew’s flame is said to be able to burn for up to sixty minutes, which would be the longest that has been reviewed today by a significant margin. The company’s design team wanted to create a highly-durable product that was visually appealing enough to bring to the classiest of occasions. They were successful in their design of the Spicy Dew torch-product.

Spicy Dew treats safety with the highest level of importance. They spared no expense on the design of the torch-product for safety. The product features anti-flare protection, flame protection, child safety lock, and heavy base to prevent tipping over. Spicy Dew’s item certainly possesses the most sophisticated safety features of any torch reviewed today.

Finally, it’s always great to see companies that care about the well-being of their customers. Clearly, Spicy Dew is one of these companies. Their dedication to excellence in safety combined with their 100% guarantee and no-hassle returns.

The Amazon product page for this torch is nothing but positive reviews from people who love the product. The Spicy Dew torch is in the race for the crown of ‘best kitchen-torch’. Customers pay two times the amount of the rest of the torches reviewed today. Clearly, the extra money is worth the investment because the torch is such an impressive product.

The Bad

Along with the Butane Torch, there were no negative comments on the product’s Amazon page. Furthermore, its not missing any features identified as essential to shoppers for a new kitchen torch.

The only negative that’s going to be listed for the Spicy Dew blow torch is the price because it could make purchasing the torch price-prohibitive for some customers. This negative is really grasping at straws because the product is exceptional in all the other aspects.

  • 100% no-risk, no-hassle guarantee. Includes free returns.
  • Exceptional safety features, especially useful for those with children.
  • Professional, high-quality cooking torch
  • Extremely durable design
  • Product price comes in at $25.99, which is significantly more expensive that other torches reviewed today. The price increase is justified because this product is outstanding.

Buyer’s Guide

A consumer’s knowledge and understanding of what to look for when shopping for a kitchen torch is of paramount importance. As a customer, you must carefully inspect all features, designs, functions, and facts related to the product. This also includes the company that manufactures the torches. Consumers should seek out brands who treat their customers with respect, provide customer service, and stand by the reliability of their products.

An individual shopping for a new kitchen torch should divide their inspection of the product into two parts. First, check out the positives behind a product. Secondly, check the negatives and compare the two. Finally, do a quick look into the company culture. Be sure they’re going to be responsive and try to help you if anything with your new blow torch goes wrong.

Let’s examine some of the most important positive features that torch customers want to see on their product.

  • Cost, Value compared to cost
  • Durable and simple design
  • Versatility with an ability to be useful among various situations and location
  • Powerful flame and temperature
  • Product is convenient and portably
  • Ability to use the product on a variety of food
  • Excellent safety feature
  • Company return policy

Several of the previously stated characteristics will likely be on the highest-quality kitchen torches. A product that is missing more than one or two of those features will likely be labelled a ‘cheap’ or ‘lesser’ quality torch.

Now, let’s discuss a few negative traits that will really turn off customers from buying a certain brand of kitchen torch.

  • Purchase of product doesn’t include butane. Torch is difficult to refill or refuel. 
  • Flame or temperature isn’t strong enough to cook a desired meal or food
  • When guarantees of durability are made, yet the product shows a distinct lack of durability.
  • Problems arising shortly after purchase.
  • Leaking butane.
  • Safety compromised and/or lacking essential safety features.

Next, we’re going to take a deeper look at a few of the common and important specific features related to kitchen torches.

Product Versatility

Versatility is incredibly important in the eyes of kitchen torch users and customers. Owners of torches want a dynamic tool that can solve more than one problem. The torch takes up space in your bag, pocket, or work space, correct? Therefore, if the torch can only serve one function, it’s not worth taking up your limited space.

However, the best and most popular kitchen torches are highly versatile. These torches can function efficiently in a variety of situations and settings. Versatile torches will be able to assist owners in arts and crafts, jewellery design, camping functions, and of course, food preparation.

Customers don’t need to spend a premium price for a highly dynamic torch. Therefore, any prospective kitchen torch customer should seek out a product with numerous functions and uses.

Safety Features

The best and most-trusted torch manufacturers will almost undoubtedly possess a flawless safety record. The company will also continually adapt their safety functions and features. People don’t generally think of a torch as an extremely dangerous tool, but they certainly can be.

Safety is a vital feature related to the design of a torch. Customers should spare no expense when shopping for a torch, especially when they have children around. Look for phrases like ‘safety lock’, ‘child proof’, or ‘flame protector’ on the packaging or outside of the torch. Any product that is lacking safety features should be quickly passed over.

Sufficiently Powerful Flame or Temperature

One of the most commonly seen negative reviews associated with kitchen torches is the products inability to cook or assist in the preparation of certain foods. Many individuals who purchase torches are going to use it primarily with food. Even if they don’t plan on using the torch exclusively with food, its certainly one of the product’s most important functions.

Customers should examine product packaging or carefully read the online description of the characteristics of a torch. The torch should be able to consistently function at a temperature around 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Most torches have designs that allow users to control the settings of the flame and its temperature. Therefore, it’s always possible to turn down the flame or temperature but you can’t add power to a weak torch.

Kitchen Torch FAQs

1. Why Does my Torch Keep Going Out? 

Torches light more effectively when the fluid valve barely open, which allows a low, light flow of gas. Additionally, torches cannot stay lit when their pressure regulator is turned upside down. Therefore, if your torch is upside down and it won’t ignite, flip it back over.

2. What Can you Use a Kitchen Torch For?

Kitchen torches can be used for a variety of functions and activities. Most people use their kitchen torches for food, but they do have other functions too. Here are some of the most common foods that people help prepare with a torch.

  • Brown Meringues 
  • Crème Brulee 
  • Baked Ham
  • Melting Cheese 
  • Toasting Bread Crumbs 
  • RoastIng Bell Peppers

3. Can you Use a Lighter Instead of a Kitchen Torch?

Using a lighter for a meal preparation like Crème Brulee is not going to be effective. The heat that comes from the flame of a lighter is too weak to have any effect on food preparation. Either invest in a kitchen torch or a broiler.

4. How Hot Does a Culinary Torch Get?

Consumer butane kitchen torches are commonly said to achieve flame temperatures up to around 1,430 degrees Celsius (2,610 degrees Fahrenheit). Those temperatures are hot enough to melt several metals.

5. Does Butane Get Old

Butane fuel in a canister will not get old or go bad. The cannister itself can begin to develop rust, and the seal of the valve can lose integrity. It would take between ten and twenty years for the valve seal to deteriorate entirely.

The Final Verdict

Well, we’ve searched all over for the best kitchen torch on the market. It’s been especially difficult to choose an option for ‘the best’ because several of the torches had few weaknesses so it was challenging to distinguish or select the factor which set one torch apart from another.

At the end of the day, the award for the honor of ‘Best Kitchen Torch’ goes to the Butane Refillable Torch Lighter. Although each candidate received an equal opportunity to be named the best kitchen torch, another torch would’ve needed to be flawless to surpass the Zen Spirit torch.

The outstanding product featured each essential characteristic from the list of traits that torch customers deemed to be the most important. The reliability, simplicity, functionality, and efficiency of the Butane Zen Spirit Torch were second to none.

In addition to awarding the prize of ‘Best Kitchen Torch’, there will also be an award for the ‘Second Best Kitchen Torch’, which is going to be awarded to the Sondiko Culinary Torch.

The Sondiko Torch is an excellent, well-rounded, visually appealing, and durable product, which customers seemed to have received very well too. It was incredibly difficult to find any weaknesses for either the Sondiko or Butane torch(es).

Overall, there were no weak links among the group of torches that we reviewed. All the products that we looked at would make for a useful and likely-effective product. Therefore, if you’re in the market for a new kitchen torch, simply scroll back up to the top and you need go no further!

Similar Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *